Return to student menu
Student Do-It-Yourself Final Examination Pretest 

Here is a set of 111 questions pertaining to The Challenge of Democracy created by 200 Northwestern University students the last time that Kenneth Janda taught the American Government course. He invited his lecture course to submit multiple-choice items for their final examination, promising to include some items among the 60 on the final. (It was multiple choice because course grades were due only three days afterward. The midterm was essay format, and there was a term paper.)

The students' questions were posted on the course web site with this comment:

Not all of these questions deserve Pulitzer Prizes, in fact some are not very good and a few seem to lack a good correct answer. Nonetheless, they all should help you study for the examination. I warn you that I may change the position of the alternatives and perhaps improve the questions or answer categories before using them on the final exam.

You might find it helpful to try answering these questions, even if your instructor does not use a multiple choice exam.

Chapter Readings in Challenge of Democracy
# Items

The Purposes of Government

1: Freedom, Order, and Equality


Democratic Theory

2: Majoritarian or Pluralist Democracy
3: The Constitution


Institutionalizing Democracy

4: Federalism
14: The Courts
15: Order and Civil Liberties


The Political Nature of the Masses

5: Public Opinion and Socialization
6: The Media
7: Participation and Voting


Elite-Mass Institutional Linkages

8: Political Parties
9: Nominations, Elections, and Campaigns


Group-Government Linkages

10: Interest Groups
16: Equality and Civil Rights


Congress and the Presidency-

11: Congress


The Presidency and the Bureaucracy

12: The Presidency
13: The Bureaucracy


Making Public Policy

17: Economic Policy
18: Policy-making and Domestic Policy



Week 1: The Purposes of Government (Chapter 1)--12 questions

1-1: A communitarian would support:
a. a laissez faire economic policy
b. government efforts to redistribute wealth
c. government intervening to promote both freedom and equality
d. allowing sexually explicit art
1-2: Do interest groups fit well with the pluralist model of democracy?
a. yes, they fit very well
b. they partially fit
c. yes, but they fit better to the majoritarian model
d. no, they don't fit well at all
1-3: Which ideology advocates government intervention in both the social and economic spheres?
a. communitarian
b. liberal
c. conservative
d. libertarian
1-4: If a person were to argue that students should allowed to wear whatever they want to school because the Bill of Rights guarantees them the right to "freedom of expression," this person would most likely support which view of democracy?
a. Procedural Democracy
b. Majoritarian Democracy
c. Substantive Democracy
d. Pluralist Democracy
1-5: This issue is a relatively new and controversial goal of government
a. maintaining order
b. providing public goods
c. protecting private property
d. promoting equality
1-6: Which two ideological types would most favor mandatory AIDS testing?
a. Libertarians and Liberals
b. Conservatives and Liberals
c. Liberals and Communitarians
d. Communitarians and Conservatives
1-7: Which of the following would a libertarian most likely favor?
a. equality of outcome
b. laissez faire economics
c. pro-life policies
d. totalitarianism
1-8: Which of the following is NOT a public good?
a. long distance phone service
b. interstate highways
c. elementary schools
d. waste disposal
1-9: Historically, what has was government's oldest objective?
a. Protecting Freedom
b. Maintaining Order
c. Providing Public Goods
d. Promoting Equality
1-10: Which of the following, according to communist theory, is least important as a function of government?
a. Protection of Personal Liberty
b. Control of the means of production
c. Promotion of Social Equality
d. Maintenance of Order
1-11: Thomas Hobbes believed that "life would be solitary, poor, nasty, and short" without this.
a. Freedom
b. Order
c. Equality
d. Religion
1-12: What was the original dilemma of government?
a. Should a democratic government lean toward pluralism or majoritarianism?
b. How much freedom should citizens give up for equality?
c. Which is more important, equality of opportunity or equality of outcome?
d. How much freedom should citizens give up for order?

Return to list of weeks

Week 2: Democratic Theory (Chapters 2 and 3)-- 14 questions
2-1: Evidence supporting the idea that the U.S. does not have an elitist government include all of the following except:
a. The U.S. has many different minorities, not just one.
b. The U.S. has a government where minorities rule.
c. The U.S. government is decentralized.
d. In the U.S., all groups have equal influence on government decisions.
2-2: This 1787 design for the new Constitution of the United States would replace the failed Articles of Confederation and provide for the separation of powers.
a. Connecticut Compromise
b. New Jersey Plan
c. Virginia Plan
d. Great Compromise
2-3: Which of the following best distinguishes pluralist democracy from majoritarianism?
a. Pluralism does demands more knowledge from ordinary citizens.
b. Pluralism seeks to limit access to congressional policy makers.
c. Pluralism implies that a small group make all decisions.
d. Pluralism relies on a decentralized government structure.
2-4: Which statement about pluralist democracy and elite theory is most accurate?
a. Elite theory is based on the idea of competing interest groups.
b. Pluralist theory is based on the idea that a small group of people makes most of the important government decisions.
c. Elite theory describes a government that operates in an undemocratic fashion.
d. Pluralist theory defines government conflict in terms of a minority versus the majority
2-5: The Procedural View of Democracy includes all of the following except:
a. Majority Rule
b. Universal Participation
c. Government responsiveness to public opinion
d. Decentralization of Power
2-6: Which of the following is not inherent to majoritarian democracy?
a. All citizens are entitled to participate in government.
b. Each citizen has one vote on governmental questions.
c. Each citizen is represented by a group
d. Government should be responsive to public opinion.
2-7: During the founding days of the United States, government was marked by a loose confederation of states. The failure of this system, which brought about the development of our federalist system, was related to the fact that
a. no rule specified how many votes were needed to approve of important issues like war and taxation
b. the national government consistently overstepped its boundaries with regards to power and states' rights
c. the executive could not be controlled by the congress
d. no power was given to the national government to tax which made the national government dependent on the states
2-8: Which political principle was not embodied in the Constitution of the United States?
a. Political equality of citizens
b. Republicanism
c. Federalism
d. Separation of powers
2-9: What was the earliest event in American cold-war foreign policy?
a. the Iranian hostage crisis
b. the Korean war
c. the Cuba missile crisis
d. the Vietnam conflict
2-10: Which principle is not essential to procedural democracy?
a. universal participation
b. majority rule.
c. social equality
d. political equality
2-11: Richard Nixon resigned before what branch of government was preparing to impeach him?
a. The House of Representatives
b. The Senate
c. The Department of Justice
d. The Supreme Court
2-12: Which of the following is inconsistent with the pluralist model of government?
a. filibuster
b. judicial review
c. referendum
d. interest groups
2-13: The type of democracy most compatible with minority rule is
a. pluralist
b. procedural
c. substantive
d. direct
2-14: Which of the following is not a principle of procedural democracy?
a. Universal Participation
b. Political Equality
c. Minority Rule
d. Government Responsiveness to Public Opinion

Return to list of weeks

Week 3: Institutionalizing Democracy (Chapters 4, 14, and 15)-- 11 questions
3-1: According to The Challenge of Democracy, which of the following is true?
a. Preemption delegates power from the national government to the states.
b. In cooperative dualism, states' rights is of primary importance.
c. Judges are said to exercise judicial review when they interpret existing laws and rulings using previous cases in reaching their decisions.
d. The elastic clause expands the powers of Congress beyond the enumerated powers, in order to make all laws that are "necessary and proper."
3-2: Which of the following models of democracy does the idea of cooperative federalism best support?
a. majoritarian
b. procedural
c. pluralist
d. elitist
3-3: Which of the following is not a characteristic of cooperative federalism?
a. National and state agencies perform joint functions
b. Power in government is fragmented rather than concentrated at one level
c. The national government only has limited purposes
d. National and state governments routinely share power
3-4: Which Constitutional amendment is directly related to the due process of law?
a. 1st Amendment
b. 5th Amendment
c. 13th Amendment
d. 20th Amendment
3-5: The Supreme Court has consistently equated prayer in public schools with government support of religion. Some say that this violates which constitutional clause?
a. The Free-Exercise Clause
b. The Neutrality Clause
c. The Establishment Clause
d. The Free-Expression Clause
3-6 What implications did Marbury v. Madison have on American Government?
a. Set the precedent of Judicial Review
b. Established the supremacy clause
c. The Court gave Congress the power to charter a bank
d. Gives defendants in state courts the Sixth Amendment right to counsel.
3-7: Which is not an institutional mechanism of popular government?
a. the military
b. political parties
c. legislatures
d. interest groups
3-8: The following are all limits the Constitution sets on both the nations and states with regards to citizen's rights except
a. Barred government from passing bills of attainder
b. Prohibited governments from enacting ex post facto laws
c. Guarantees the principle of stare decisis
d. Barred both nation and states from impairing obligations of contract
3-9: The Challenge of Democracy argues that the United States best represents which type of democracy?
a. Deliberative
b. Pluralist
c. Majoritarian
d. Direct
3-10: According to evidence and argument, which of the following seems most accurate?
a. Free speech allows criticism of public figures, even if the criticism is outrageous and offensive.
b. The Supreme Court has consistently held that freedom of the press overrides the requirements of law enforcement.
c. Bills of attainder are laws that declare an action a crime after it has been performed.
d. In Gideon v. Wainwright, the Court extended to defendants in state courts the right to remain silent.
3-11: A medical organization seeks a grant for a new program which aims to research alternatives to standard cancer treatments.
a. They should apply for a block grant which is awarded for specific purposes.
b. They should apply for a project grant which is awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
c. They should apply for a municipal grant which is awarded to local organizations.
d. They should apply for a formula grant which is awarded based on financial eligibility.

Return to list of weeks

Week 4: The Political Nature of the Masses (Chapters 5, 6, and 7)-- 15 questions
4-1: Which of the following is not one of the three common distribution patterns for responses to public opinion polls?
a. skewed
b. hyperbolic
c. bimodal
d. normal
4-2: Political behavior that uses channels such as meeting with public officials, supporting candidates, and voting in elections is called...
a. Conventional Participation
b. Direct Action
c. Pluralist behavior
d. Unconventional Participation
4-3: What type of distribution reflects a high degree of homogeneity in public opinion?
a. Bimodal Distribution
b. Normal Distribution
c. Skewed Distribution
d. Regular Distribution
4-4: Which term applies to the procedure by which voters can propose a measure to be decided by legislature or by the people?
a. referendum
b. initiative
c. recall
d. direct action
4-5: An Ideological Self-Placement bar graph for the American public would most resemble a
a. Bimodal distribution
b. Normal distribution
c. Concave distribution
d. Skewed distribution
4-6: Which of the following did not have the backing of the Progressives?
a. direct primary
b. referendum
c. traditional political parties
d. recall
4-7: Which of the following is not regarded as an agent of early socialization?
a. family
b. school
c. newspapers
d. community and peers
4-8: Of all the social and economic variables, what is the strongest single factor that explains engaging in conventional forms of political participation?
a. Religion
b. Education
c. Gender
d. Social Class
4-9: Which of the following accurately describes the current role of the mass media in the U.S.?
a. Functions as a socialization tool
b. Plays a communication role between the people and the government
c. Often counteracts government attempts to promote order
d. All of the above
4-10: A graph which is a symmetrical, bell-shaped spread around a single mode is called a
a. skewed distribution
b. normal distribution
c. average distribution
d. bimodal distribution
4-11: In the United States, which factor is the best predictor of voter turnout?
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Socioeconomic Status
d. Race
4-12: Which of the following statements does not support the "television hypothesis"?
a. People who rely on television for their news score lower on tests of knowledge of public affairs than those who read the news.
b. Television viewers learn to identify candidates for public office visually rather than by their positions on the issues.
c. People with lower cognitive skills learn more from television than from print media.
d. Studies have shown that print media is more effective than television in relating popular issues to the public.
4-13: The term "Solid South" refers to...
a. The strong agricultural base of the southern economy before the civil war.
b. The tendency of the south to vote solidly Democratic before the middle part of this century.
c. The tendency of southern voters to choose freedom over order.
d. The strong economy of sunbelt states.
4-14: A study comparing Americans with citizens in other industrialized countries, showed tat Americans were least likely (compared with others) to engage in what type of political participation?
a. voting
b. all forms of unconventional participation except protesting
c. all forms of conventional participation except voting
d. all forms of conventional participation
4-15: Which of the following best exemplifies low-initiative political participation in the United States?
a. registering to vote
b. writing letters to Congress
c. voting
d. attending city council meetings

Return to list of weeks

Week 5: Elite-Mass Institutional Linkages (Chapters 8 and 9)-- 9 questions
5-1: All the following are examples of primary elections held by states except...
a. closed primaries
b. blanket primaries
c. split primaries
d. open primaries
5-2: The book describes three common election campaign strategies. Which is not among the three?
a. party-centered strategy
b. voter-oriented strategy
c. issue-oriented strategy
d. candidate-oriented strategy
5-3: the Federal Election Commission enforces which one of the following:
a. Limits on financial contributions.
b. Who can run for office.
c. Legislation on referendums.
d. The number of parties allowed to run in a campaign.
5-4: Lobbying activities performed by rank-and-file interest group members and supporters is called
a. direct lobbying
b. grassroots lobbying
c. high-tech lobbying
d. indirect lobbying
5-5: American political parties are least likely to perform which function in the political system?
a. Nominating candidates for election to public office
b. Coordinating the actions of government officials
c. Structuring voting choice in elections
d. Running congressional election campaigns
5-6: A change in voting patterns after an election that persists through several subsequent elections is known as:
a. a critical election
b. an electoral realignment
c. the result of a successful national convention
d. the result of a two-party electoral system
5-7: The election of 1860 is considered a "critical election" because:
a. Voters from the north and south realigned; northerners voted Republican and southerners Democrat, and the realignment persisted for decades.
b. Southerners turned out in larger numbers for the first time in a presidential election.
c. The Republican party split, nominating two presidential candidates (Abraham Lincoln and John Breckenridge)
d. It gave birth to the Democratic Party, which ran a presidential candidate for the first time.
5-8: Scholars say that the decentralization of American parties is most likely to be associated with:
a. The public's lack of interest in politics
b. The lack of public funding for congressional candidates.
c. The reliance on primary elections to nominate party candidates.
d. The lack of cohesive ideas within the party.
5-9: What was most responsible for the political machine's loss of power in America?"
a. The increase in the power of the presidency.
b. The Great Depression.
c. Higher national educational standards, allowing for better voter decisions and encouraging independent voting.
d. Government provision of social services, i.e. better unemployment benefits, aid to families with children, etc.

Return to list of weeks

Week 6: Group-Government Linkages (Chapters 10 and 16)--14 questions
6-1: Congressional lobbyists are paid their salary by
a. Their Constituents
b. Interest Groups
c. Members of Congress
d. Government agencies
6-2: Protectionism refers to
a. the movement to create a series of protective tariffs in the U.S.
b. the notion that women must be sheltered from life's harsh realities
c. the idea that the Constitution should protect all citizens equally
d. the concept that affirmative action exists to protect minorities
6-3: The idea that each citizen has the same chance to succeed in life is
a. freedom of opportunity
b. freedom of outcome
c. equality of opportunity
d. equality of outcome
6-4: The "free-rider" problem occurs when
a. people who don't contribute to an organization or activity can still benefit from the organization or activity.
b. an amendment opposed by the majority of Congress is placed on a bill the majority of Congress favors.
c. candidates are elected with low voter turnout.
d. citizens get more in social order than they give up in freedom
6-5: All of the following are part of tactics lobbyist use to influence the government except for:
a. Personal contact with the policy makers.
b. letter-writing campaigns and protests pushing an interest group's rank-and-file members.
c. Providing the legislators with financial assistance to influence their vote.
d. banding several organizations together in coalition building.
6-6: Grassroots lobbying does NOT include which of the following
a. letter-writing campaigns
b. Internet postings
c. boycotts
d. public demonstration
76: An example of direct lobbying is:
a. meeting with a policy maker to deal with an issue
b. staging a letter writing campaign
c. funding a television campaign to inform the public of your agenda
d. protesting a bill directly in front of the Capitol
6-8: Interest groups can be characterized by all of the following except:
a. people in a particular interest group share political goals
b. interest groups influence public policy decisions
c. interest groups nominate candidates
d. the strength of an interest group depends largely on its resources
6-9: Interest groups are likely to perform all of the functions except:
a. propose controversial policies to members of congress
b. nominate candidates for public office
c. endorse candidates for public office
d. form political action committees
6-10: PACs (political action committees) generally give more money to the political campaigns of
a. incumbents
b. challengers
c. the out-party candidate in elections without incumbents
d. third party candidates that explicitly back the PAC's policy positions
611: The most common method of grassroots lobbying is
a. protests
b. letter writing and email campaigns
c. direct lobbying
d. legal advocacy
6-12: Which of the following is NOT a legitimate function of interest groups?
a. defining the political agenda for congressional action
b. testifying in Congressional hearings
c. writing legislation to submit to Congress
d. monitoring government programs
6-13: The majoritarian model of democracy is least consistent with which activity?
a. a referendum
b. an amicus curiae brief presented to the court
c. a centralized government system
d. an initiative
6-14: Interest groups and the two major political parties re most similar in which way?
a. They both influence policy decisions.
b. They both back candidates that are likely to lose their election.
c. They both have a narrow policy focus.
d. They both nominate candidates for public office.

Return to list of weeks

Week 7: Congress and the Presidency (Chapter 11)-- 14 questions
7-1: Which of the following is not a major duty or power of the president?
a. Act as commander in chief of the military.
b. Declare war.
c. Veto legislation.
d. Make treaties.
7-2: Which of the following is not a duty of the president of the United States?
a. convene Congress
b. veto legislation
c. act as president of the Senate
d. make treaties
7-3: Which of the following is most characteristic of a pluralist form of government?
a. elites tend to rule the masses
b. a centralized government structure
c. competing interest groups
d. a two party system
7-4: A temporary committee created to work out differences between House and Senate versions of a specific piece of legislation is called a
a. Joint committee
b. Rules committee
c. Conference committee
d. Select committee
7-5: All statements about the legislative process in both the House and the Senate is true except
a. After a bill is introduced, it is referred to a subcommittee.
b. Every bill introduced must be brought to a vote on the floor.
c. Only Senators and Members of the House may introduce legislation in their chambers.
d. If both the House and the Senate pass the bill in identical form, it is sent to the President.
7-6: Which role for members of Congress best corresponds to the majoritarian conception of democracy?
a. trustee
b. delegate
c. party maverick
d. party loyalist
7-7: The real power in the Senate generally resides in the:
a. vice president
b. most senior senator
c. majority leader
d. president pro tem
7-8: In Shaw v. Reno (1993), the Supreme Court ruled that states would violate whites' rights by trying to increase minority representation through
a. racial gerrymandering
b. redistricting
c. gerrymandering
d. descriptive representations
7-9: A member of congress who recognizes and considers the views of his constituents, but does not vote to support them is said to be acting as a
a. lobbyist
b. trustee
c. incumbent
d. delegate
7-10: Which factor among the best explains why more than 90 percent of the House incumbents win reelection? .
a. Name recognition to voters
b. Routine gerrymandering done by the incumbent before the next election
c. PACs preferring to donate financially to incumbents' campaigns
d. Party affiliation
7-11: A pocket veto occurs when
a. when a president strikes out different sections of a bill, invalidating particular items but allowing the rest of the bill to become law
b. when a president lets a bill "die" by not signing it after Congress adjourns
c. Congress fails to send to the president a bill that passed both chambers
d. A Senator invokes special privilege to prevent considering a bill
7-12: Concerning Impeachment, the House has
a. the power to act as court to try impeachments brought by the Senate
b. the power to formally charge the president and any other government official
c. the power to formally charge any government official, except the president
d. no constitutional power; the Senate controls all issues dealing with impeachment
7-13: Compared to our congressional system with a parliamentary government, which of the following is FALSE?
a. A parliamentary system usually has only one house or a much weaker second chamber.
b. A parliamentary system, has fewer checks on government action and less separation of powers.
c. In a parliamentary system, voters do not directly vote for the chief executive.
d. More legislative bills are typically introduced in parliamentary systems than in our congress.
7-14: A committee formed to investigate allegations against presidential or congressional misconduct is called a
a. Joint committee
b. Select committee
c. Standing committee
d. Conference committee

Return to list of weeks

Week 8: The Presidency and the Bureaucracy (Chapters 12, 12, 17, and 18)-- 11 questions
8-1: The Constitution originally gave presidents all of the following responsibilities EXCEPT:
a. An annual State of the Union report.
b. Supreme command of the military.
c. Making treaties with the consent of the Senate.
d. Proposing the federal budget to the Congress.
8-2: Which statement is most characteristic of the U.S. bureaucracy?
a. Agencies can make policy decisions without authorization from Congress.
b. Compared with other Western democracies, the U.S. bureaucracy is relatively small as a percentage of nation's workers employed in government.
c. Bureaucratic policies tend to be "abrupt and fluctuating" rather than "steady and incremental."
d. Bureaucratic decisions are usually insulated from interest group pressures.
8-3: Which of the following is an example of an independent agency?
a. the Department of Health and Human Services
b. the National Postal Service
c. the Federal Communications Commission
d. the Department of Defense
8-4: Faced with rising inflation, a Keynesian Economist would:
a. cut taxes
b. raise taxes
c. increase the aggregate demand
d. increase the money supply
8-5: Which is NOT a requirement to become President of the US?
a. must be a candidate of a recognized political party
b. lived in the US for a minimum of 14 years
c. must be a US born citizen
d. at least 35 years old
8-6: This person represents the U.S. government before the Supreme Court
a. attorney general
b. vice president
c. solicitor general
d. special counsel
8-7: The president of the United States can do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Convene congress into special session
b. Pardon an official who has been impeached
c. Formally recognize other countries
d. Veto specific lines in bills enacted by Congress
8-8: Which statement is most accurate concerning the powers of the U.S. President and the British Prime Minister ?
a. Both head all three branches of government.
b. Both act as head of state.
c. One heads all three branches of government and is also the head of state.
d. One heads only one branch of government but is also the head of state.
8-9: The President is typically most popular during the
a. first year of first term in office
b. first year of 2nd term in office
c. last year in of 2nd term when running for reelection
d. last year in office when not running for reelection
8-10: Surveys show that the American public holds which of the following parties responsible for the management of the economy?
a. The U.S. Congress
b. The Office of Management and Budget
c. The Council of Economic Advisers
d. The President
8-11: Which of these actions or proposals to reduce the national deficit poses or posed the greatest threat to congressional power?
a. the Line Item Veto
b. the Gramm-Rudman Act
c. the Balanced Budget Amendment
d. the Flat Tax

Return to list of weeks

Week 9: Making Public Policy (Chapters 19 and 20) --11 questions
9-1: President Roosevelt's New Deal was most characterized by
a. having the government take over failing factories to protect employment
b. launching government programs to employ people on public works programs
c. giving land grants to families that could not afford to buy property
d. printing money to stimulate the economy
9-2: The Constitution grants Congress powers in all these foreign policy arenas EXCEPT:
a. The declaration of war
b. The appointment of US ambassadors
c. Calling out state militias to repel invasions
d. Defining and punishing offenses against international law
9-3: Which is NOT a formal power given to the President in the Constitution?
a. making treaties
b. appointing U.S. ambassadors and heads of executive departments
c. declaring war
d. receiving ambassadors from other countries
9-4: Which of the following pairings of branch of government and exercised power is correct?
a. House of Representatives - Making Treaties
b. President - Declaring War
c. Senate - Ratifying/Accepting Treaties
d. Congress - Commanding the Armed Forces
9-5: A principle of international trade that states that all nations will benefit when each nation specializes in those goods that it can produce most efficiently.
a. specialization trade
b. absolute advantage
c. efficiency principle
d. comparative advantage
9-6: The US's strategy, in regards to communism, during the Vietnam War and the Cold War was?
a. isolation
b. the Marshall Plan
c. containment
d. regionalism
9-7: Which of the following was not part of President Johnson's Great Society plan?
a. Social Security Act
b. Voting Rights Act
c. Secondary Education Act
d. Economic Opportunity Act
9-8: Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the U.S. health care system?
a. Americans get better care for less cost than citizens in most other western democracies*
b. The U.S. spends a larger percentage of its economy on health care than most other western democracies
c. cost of health care is rising
d. many Americans have no health insurance
9-9: Which of the following is NOT usually regarded as an objective of congressional tax policy?
a. To help control the economy by raising or lowering taxes
b. To lower the national debt
c. To adjust overall revenue to meet budget outlays
d. To make the tax burden more equitable to payers
9-10: In George H.W. Bush's 1988 election campaign, what was phrase was most associated with his defeat for reelection, when he told delegates at the Republican convention to "read my lips"?
a. "No new taxes"
b. "I will increase the AFDC allotment"
c. "I will cut welfare by 25%"
d. "Government is the problem, not the solution"
9-11: Which of the following groups of economists most favor having the Federal Reserve adjust interest rates to control the economy?
a. Monetarists
b. Keynesians
c. Supply side economists
d. Laissez-faire economists

Return to list of weeks