Path: CoD Home page > Global Terrorism Home Page > Section 4 > Footnotes for section 4
Restrictions on personal freedom was the Communist's Party's price for order in the Soviet Union.
C. J. Chivers, "A City, Free of Taliban, Returns to Thieves," New York Times, January 6, 2002, P. 1.
Norimitsu Onishi, "Afghan Warlords and Bandits Are Back in Business," Nw York Times, December 28, 2001, p. B1.
James Dao, "The Costs of Enduring Freedom," New York Times November 11, 2001, Section 4, p. 3. Here are some specific costs: one 2,000 pound unguided "dumb" bomb cost about $2,500 (and many hundreds were used); each cruise missile fired from ship cost from $1 million to $2 million; and each hour of flight for a B-52 bomber cost $8,600.
Pauline Jelinek, "Pantagon Weighs Cut in Air Partols over U.S. Cities," Chicago Tribune, January 15, 2002, p. 13.
John D. McKinnon and Gary Fields, "Homeland Defense Is Focus of Budget Fight as Bush Resists Spending," Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2001, p. A20.
"Attacks May Cost U.S. 1.8 Million Jobs," New York Times, January 13, 2002, p. 14.
Richard W. Stevenson, "Huge Decline Seen in Budget Surplus over Next Decade," New York Times, January 6, 2002, p. 1.
Pat Towell, "Bill Takes Incremental Approach Toward Reshaping the Military," CQ Weekly Report, December 22, 2001, p. 3097.
The 1919 case was Schenck v. United States. The court continued: "The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree."
Korematsu v. United States, decided in 1944 by a vote of six to three among the nine justices. Internment in relocation camps violated the Japanese-Americans' rights as citizens--a fact recognized in the 1980s when the government apologized and paid reparations for the harm done them. Korematsu's conviction was also overturned. More information can be found in David J. Garrow, "Another Lesson from World War II Internments," New York Times, September 23, 2001, Section 4, p. 6.
Alexander Hamilton, "The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union," Federalist No. 23 (December 18, 1787). Available on January 8, 2002, at
The Supreme Court later overturned the President's executive decree, but essentially on a technicality--he shouldn't have acted without congressional approval.
Ex Parte Quinn, 1942.
Elisabeth Bumiller and Katharine Q. Seelye, "Bush Defends Wartime Call for Tribunals," New York Times, December 5, 2001, p. 1.
Katharine Q. Seeyle, "In Letter, 300 Law Professors Oppose Tribunal Plan," New ork Times, December 8, 2001, p. B7.
Quoted in Neil A. Lewis, "Ashcroft Defends Antiterror Plan; Says Criticism May Aid U.S. Foes," New York Times, December 7, 2001, p. 1.
New York Times/CBS News Poll, based on 1,052 interviews conducted December 7 to 10. Reported in Robin Toner and Janet Elder, "Public Is Wary but Supportive on Rights, Curbs," New YOrk Times, December 12, 2001, p. 1 and B9.
Quoted in Robin Toner, "Civil Liberties: Less a Battle than a Tricky Balancing Act," New York Times, December 5, 2001, p. 1.
Warren Hoge, "U.S. Terror Attacks Galvanize Europeans to Tighten Laws," New York Times, December 6, 2001, p. B1.

Return to section 4