Home page >
Terrorism Home Page >
4 > Footnotes
for section 4
- Restrictions on
personal freedom was the
Communist's Party's price for order in the Soviet
- C. J. Chivers, "A
City, Free of Taliban, Returns to Thieves," New York Times,
January 6, 2002, P. 1.
- Norimitsu Onishi,
"Afghan Warlords and Bandits Are Back in Business," Nw York
Times, December 28, 2001, p. B1.
- James Dao, "The
Costs of Enduring Freedom," New York Times November 11,
2001, Section 4, p. 3. Here are some specific costs: one 2,000
pound unguided "dumb" bomb cost about $2,500 (and many hundreds
were used); each cruise missile fired from ship cost from $1
million to $2 million; and each hour of flight for a B-52 bomber
- Pauline Jelinek,
"Pantagon Weighs Cut in Air Partols over U.S. Cities," Chicago
Tribune, January 15, 2002, p. 13.
- John D. McKinnon
and Gary Fields, "Homeland Defense Is Focus of Budget Fight as
Bush Resists Spending," Wall Street Journal, December 3,
2001, p. A20.
- "Attacks May Cost
U.S. 1.8 Million Jobs," New York Times, January 13, 2002,
- Richard W.
Stevenson, "Huge Decline Seen in Budget Surplus over Next Decade,"
New York Times, January 6, 2002, p. 1.
- Pat Towell, "Bill
Takes Incremental Approach Toward Reshaping the Military," CQ
Weekly Report, December 22, 2001, p. 3097.
- The 1919 case was
Schenck v. United States. The court continued: "The
question in every case is whether the words used are used in such
circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and
present danger that they will bring about the substantive
evils that Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of
proximity and degree."
- Korematsu v.
United States, decided in 1944 by a vote of six to three
among the nine justices. Internment
in relocation camps violated the Japanese-Americans' rights as
citizens--a fact recognized in the 1980s when the government
apologized and paid reparations for the harm done them.
Korematsu's conviction was also overturned. More information can
be found in David J. Garrow, "Another Lesson from World War II
Internments," New York Times, September 23, 2001, Section
4, p. 6.
- Alexander Hamilton,
"The Necessity of a Government
as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the
No. 23 (December 18, 1787). Available on January 8, 2002, at
- The Supreme Court
later overturned the President's executive decree, but essentially
on a technicality--he shouldn't have acted without congressional
- Ex Parte
- Elisabeth Bumiller
and Katharine Q. Seelye, "Bush Defends Wartime Call for
Tribunals," New York Times, December 5, 2001, p.
- Katharine Q.
Seeyle, "In Letter, 300 Law Professors Oppose Tribunal Plan,"
New ork Times, December 8, 2001, p. B7.
- Quoted in Neil A.
Lewis, "Ashcroft Defends Antiterror Plan; Says Criticism May Aid
U.S. Foes," New York Times, December 7, 2001, p.
- New York
Times/CBS News Poll, based on 1,052 interviews conducted
December 7 to 10. Reported in Robin Toner and Janet Elder, "Public
Is Wary but Supportive on Rights, Curbs," New YOrk Times,
December 12, 2001, p. 1 and B9.
- Quoted in Robin
Toner, "Civil Liberties: Less a Battle than a Tricky Balancing
Act," New York Times, December 5, 2001, p. 1.
- Warren Hoge, "U.S.
Terror Attacks Galvanize Europeans to Tighten Laws," New York
Times, December 6, 2001, p. B1.
Return to section 4